Specialized Knowledge, skills and creativity acquired by individuals through advanced education are all essential for the integration of countries into the society of knowledge. Without well-prepared scientists and knowledge, countries will inevitably face economic and intellectual isolation and will have great difficulty to overcome their problems. This book presents the results of the study entitled "Thirty Years of Conacyt´s Scholarship Program: Evlution, Results and Impact", and it documents the changes in the orientation, management and implementation of the Program from its conception. The book responds to three basic questions: How has the pattern of distributing grants evolved? Who has benefited from this, the largest, public financing scheme to support graduate studies in Mexico and abroad? And what have been the results of the public money use and how individuals and society reflect the benefits of having concluded graduate studies? In order to be able to explore these questions, it was necessary to theoretically establish the function of human capital in the New Economy, determine a system for data gathering and the technical means of analysis. This research will surely stimulate the realization of other studies with the capacity to point out the aspects which deserve deeper analysis than the ones offered here.